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Taking action in the face of fear in order to achieve change.

     It is the start of a brand new year and with that comes a brand new vision, brand new goals and brand new ideas- or basically, the desire for or need to change!  Last year the themes of my monthly blogs centered around children’s books and while it was fun working on them it is time to change direction a bit. However, since it is The Writing Queen site’s five year anniversary this month, (yup- I can’t believe it either… Where does time go?) and since we are discussing change, I have decided to make my own change- to do something different this year with my blogs.

     This year’s blog theme will contain or come from an eclectic range of topics.  One month my blog may continue to focus on a children’s story (since I didn’t get enough last year!), another month I may take readers on a journey through a Y.A adventure I enjoyed while providing helpful writing advice for Y.A writers based on that story, another month I may write about an adult novel I appreciated, dissecting it as a way to learn what worked, and of course what didn’t work, for that particular author or for me as the reader, while another month my blog may come from a how to article borrowed from one of my favorite writing magazines or how to write books.  Additionally, – who knows- I might even throw in a blog or two with excerpts from some of the writing projects I am currently working on, though only enough to wet the reader’s appetite until and if the projects are ever fully completed.

     Basically, anything goes this year!  2018 will bring with it a real smorgasbord of Writing Queen blogs, with one common denominator, of course, as the only condition-  all of my blogs will continue to focus on some aspect of writing and reading. After all, the two go hand in hand- like morning and coffee, movies and popcorn or bread and butter!  Without good writing we won’t have good reading and without individuals who love to read there won’t be a need for good writing——- so, without further adieu, I give you my first blog of 2018 on writing and reading and because it IS the start of a new year, and time for change!

     Why is it that so many of us create new year’s resolutions only to eventually break them?  After tiring of the same old perspective and routine, or the same old self, we become eager for change, therefore;  we set a goal and cross our fingers that we will grow strong enough to attain it. In writing, as in life, many of us find it difficult to recognize we need to change, or to make decisions.  We struggle with going outside our comfort zone to try something new, to discard the tattered old process in which we write our stories, create our art work, or live our lives, therefore; we fail to attain the change we desire or need.   In order to secure change we must first realize and accept that there is the need to change to begin with.

     For instance, in Bob Mayer’s informative article in the February 2018 Writers Digest, he writes about making changes to our writing processes, and finding a way to fight our fears in order to accomplish success.

     Acknowledging that plots and characters “come and go”, the author points out that for successful writers, it is the passion for the process that must burn on that will lead us to success.  As we writers know, any good story will center around a fully rounded character arc, but in order to accomplish that feat the character must pass through three stages of change, just as we must do in real life if we want to achieve our resolutions, or simply clinch any goal. Those three stages include the moment of enlightenment ( such as the moment we come up with our new year’s resolutions (or we create a goal) because we realize we need to change something about our process, or about ourself. This stage is followed by the decision stage, which Mayer points out binds the character in a sudden obligation, either externally imposed or internally motivated.

     Finally, the third stage that actually accomplishes the change, and the one that has the most potential  to break our resolutions, or prevent us from procuring the change- if not realized, -the most difficult stage, is sustained action.  Through sustained action in which we have “trained” the new behaviors into becoming habit, we can obtain change.

     As Mr. Mayer indicates, most of us struggle with decisions, not because we are afraid of the decision but because we are afraid of making a mistake, or of failing. He further points out that the only way to become an artist is to take risk, or to accept that being wrong is an inherent process of creativity.  By testing different methods and identifying which areas you have the most trouble with, you can figure out… who you are as a writer, what type of story you most desire to write, what message you want to send, what idea excites you, what types of characters you want to create and what type of problems they will have as well as what changes they will or won’t attain as part of their character arcs. And you will figure out what changes you need to make to the process you use, or the path you take,  to work toward getting yourself across your finish line- whatever that may be.

     The author adds that fear of making a mistake or of failure is the number one problem facing every artist, just as it is for individuals in life, and it is that fear that should push us toward recognizing our need to change to begin with.  Courage, Mayer says in his article, is taking action in the face of fear.  Further, the author embellishes this idea with a great quote from essayist Anais Bin;

     “ Life shrinks or expands in proportion to one’s courage”.

     And, adds Mayer,  “so does our art”.   It is our passion channelled by our writing (or any ) process that fuels our courage.  Therefore, in order to attain and maintain sustained action, we – like the fully rounded character arcs we create, must first identify the need to change, make the decision to take the necessary action that will push us forward down the path, and keep at that action until the brand new process becomes a part of who we are as a writer, an artist, or as an individual.

     Just as our characters’ have a need to save the day, marry the guy, find the lost treasure, get the bad guy, or become a better or changed person, or whether the every day individual’s need to change includes a resolution to lose weight, exercise more, or save money, it will be possible to achieve that goal only as long as we push fear out of the way in order to clear our cluttered path toward success.

     Through identifying our need to change and taking sustained action in the face of fear, we can do anything we set our minds to do, even if it means ripping up the story we have worked on for three years that we know deep down isn’t working, or discarding the size two clothes in our closet that we know will never fit again.  It is taking action in the face of fear that will allow us to procure change, reach our goal, or achieve our ever faithful new year’s resolutions, this time for once and for all.

Hope in a Brand New Light and Our Own Special Place in the World

What better way to end this year’s “children’s theme” blog collection than to combine the enchantment of imagination with the inspiration from poetry, and the magical sprinkle of Christmas charm into my closing blog of this year as a final pitch to bring hope back into our everyday lives.  After all, my blogs this past year have ultimately been about hope -and although these blogs are about the craft and passion of writing and reading, it is the human condition in some form or other about which most stories are written.

I began writing poems and stories when I was about eight or nine years old, at a time when I viewed the world from beneath a child’s veil of purity and pixie dust and through starry- eyed, rose- colored glasses.  In our young innocence there is always hope, not yet tainted by tragedy and disappointment and the life experiences that eventually reshape us and it is through story that it becomes possible to somehow find the way to hope again.

Finding magic and charm in nearly every situation and experience as a child, from the sound of rain falling against the side of my family’s bi-level home to the silence of the season’s first snow falling gently upon the outstretched boughs of the tree nestled upon our front lawn, to the trailing growl of airplanes in the distance flying across the flawless skies on a warm summer day as I worked in the garden with my father,  it wasn’t difficult to find  story ideas in ‘everywhere” and ‘everything”.  It was easy to find words that could rhyme or sound lyrical, or to create characters  capable of bringing fairy tales to life while spinning together happy endings into which I wished I could slip, making my character’s hopeful endings my own.

A writer’s aim is to emit a shiny new light on everyday situations, people and objects in order to mirror the universal human condition or emotion.  Some authors do this by breathing life into inanimate objects like misfit toys who hope to be found, little red cabooses who hope to succeed at their tasks or quaint little country cottages who hope to find joy in the city only to later discover they were happiest in the place from which they started.  Other writers infuse animated life into animals, like the three bears who come home to find a hopeful little golden haired girl in their beds, or into reindeer who fly through the fog in order to ensure that little boys and girls receive the dream gifts on their Christmas lists.

Regardless of the kind of pixie dust a children’s writer  ( or any writer) chooses to sprinkle into her creation, the key is to look at the subject about which she desires to write- from a unique perspective, then to shake her idea around, or turn it upside down, or flip it inside out if necessary- until a brand new story emerges.

Seemingly, most stories are derived from one of several basic plot patterns, some of which include the quest plot, said to be the oldest plot line of all, in which the hero goes into the world to search for something he needs, or the revenge plot in which the protagonist was wronged in some way and seeks to avenge, or an adventure plot line, an allegory plot line, and so forth. Same basic plot line, just different ways to embellish it. Finding a shiny new manner in which to create a unique story that follows one of those familiar ,not so unique basic plot lines- should always be the writer’s goal and the reader’s expectation.

For instance, in Clement C. Moore’s The Night before Christmas, aka  A Visit from St. Nicholas and Twas the Night before Christmas, a great big ole elf named St Nick sails across the star speckled night skies in a miniature sleigh pulled by eight tiny reindeer, as he visits the homes of children all over the world;

       More rapid than eagles his coursers they came, And he whistled and shouted and called them by name: “ Now Dasher! Now Dancer! Now Prancer and Vixen! On Comet! On Cupid! On Donder and Blitzen! to the top of the porch! To  the top of the wall! Now dash away, dash away, dash away all!

In this incredibly well known poem, published in 1823 and first written in response to a request made by his daughter, Moore enchants children (and adults) of all ages year after year as his Christmas narrative welcomes readers into a magical story that is as warm and cozy as the snug and welcoming house in which Santa and his reindeer visit in his story.  Taking an ordinary home, decorated for Christmas, from which an ordinary family dreams in their beds, Moore transforms a basic plot line into a beautiful poetic story as a forever Christmas gift to his readers.

Similarly, Children’s author Chris Raschka brings a lonely little pine tree to life in his picture book;  Little Tree.  Inspired by the E.E. Cummings inspirational poem Little Tree, Raschka weaves a simple and sweet children’s tale in which a little tree’s dream for identity, recognition and love comes true when he transforms into a beautiful Christmas tree, chosen by and adored by his new family.  In his new little home, a little girl and little boy decorate the little tree;     

       The little tree lifted up his little branches, like little arms, to show off all the little ornaments, ribbons, chains and lights.     

As the little tree basks in the light of his new found love and adoration, his dream is realized as he finally finds and accepts himself in a not so little way.  Similarly weaved through out thousands of stories lining the shelves of libraries and book stores, this universal and familiar need for love and identity is presented in a unique and imaginative light, through the dream of a pine tree who comes to life for the short span of less than twelve creatively illustrated pages while lasting a lifetime in the minds and hearts of children who read this story.  Sparking the connection for which readers desire to find each time they turn a page, this author turns a sweet, little story into a giant lasting lesson of love.

Seemingly, through the spirit and magic of Christmas, traditional tales that have persevered through the test of time continue to entertain readers through lessons of love and hope over and over again. A jolly snowman comes to life with the help of a magician’s hat and the hope of a child, who melts our hearts with his desire to give love rather than merely receive it.  A round- headed and disheartened school- age boy named Charlie melts hearts when he buys a skinny, broken little Christmas tree for the cast of the Christmas play he directs and is ridiculed for his hope that he could transform the broken tree into anything special. Of course, in the end, through Charlie’s and his friend Linus’s ability to see something special, and through the gift of love and the miracle of hope, the tree flourishes. Moreover, in Charles Dickens’ allegorical classic story; A Christmas Carol, a cranky and miserable, greedy old man named Ebenezer Scrooge is transformed through the guidance of three Christmas ghosts and the hope they inspire. 

To re-discover and preserve hope, we find out who we were always supposed to be and how big a deal love and acceptance is to each of us. Like the story about a nasty and grouchy old green grinch who eventually learns that love doesn’t come in presents under the tree but in the love we give to one another, Raschka’s own little animated pine tree comes to realize the beauty of that gift as well; 

     little tree had found his own special place in the world, a special little place that was waiting for him all his life.

And in the end, isn’t that what we all want in life for those we love, for the strangers who need our help and for ourselves?  A special place in the world, or in someone’s heart where we can cherish the one gift that doesn’t come wrapped with a bow, or bought in a store, where we are free to give and receive love without expecting anything in return.  By building memories and creating and passing down traditions and stories of promise -that never die even when we ultimately must, we spread hope.

In a time of instability, unraveling and fading optimism, it is time for each one of us to recapture the innocence of childhood, bring back the magic and true meaning of Christmas and ensure that the spirit of Christmas and childhood purity remains a part of each one of us all year and in all we do.

Once upon a time, a few thousand years ago a child was born who had hope and wanted nothing more than to pass that hope along to the rest of us as a gift from his father. That child would ultimately die for us so that we could live happily ever after even though his own earthly life was brutally and prematurely taken from him.  In our faith of his love and his selfless gift to the world,  and in our universal desire to give and receive love, and our wish to find our true place in the world, we can find, build or share hope through the magic of story. 

Finally, in unearthing hope in its brand new light, like shaking a snow globe in order to rejuvenate and emphasize its beauty while illuminating its message, the writer passes to readers the gift of optimism, promise, faith, rediscovery and possibility, all of which comprise hope.  And as that hope changes color or converts into something brand new and spectacular, shining brighter as it expands, it becomes easier and more natural  to pass that special gift along to someone else, just as we were always meant to do.

In closing, I want to wish a very Merry Christmas and Happy Holiday to everyone reading my blogs this year. Regardless of the different holidays or customs you follow, or the politics to which you subscribe, or the religion in which you rest your faith, as Charles Dickens’ beloved and hopeful Tiny Tim would say;  “God Bless Us, Everyone”!

Adieu to 2017 as we remember all those we loved and lost this year and over previous years (in dedication to the man who taught me that we truly can find magic and hope in everyday life- my father) , and cheers to 2018 in expectation that it comes with the gift of hope in a brand new light, so that we might all help one another find or re-discover our own special place in the world.

Literary Substance in Children’s Picture Books and Mastering Emotion

Through imagination and a well developed story, the picture book writer adds illustrations to provide literary substance to his story.  Pictures that reflect the characters’ goals and emotions reinforce the author’s storyline, further drawing the young reader in.

In order to uphold the literary significance of the late Maurice Sendak’s story: Where the Wild Things Are, Sendak created a protagonist who interacts with wild beasts to illustrate how children might master their emotions of fear, anger or frustration.

Sendak’s protagonist is a young boy named Max who is sent to his room with no supper as a form of punishment given by his parents for his misbehavior. In his frustration, Max turns his bedroom into a jungle where he is confronted by beasts he refers to as the Wild Things.  Max appoints himself as  the “king” of the wild things and romps around with the wild thing beasts on their jungle island.  But, after a while when Max starts to miss his parents and the safety of his bedroom he sails back home to find a hot dinner waiting for him.

Containing some of the elements of Wizard of Oz, the story depicts a character who escapes his perceived injustices by traveling to a more colorful land in which there might be opportunity to attain the justice he felt deprived of back home.  Of course, in the end the character realizes there really is no place like home, however,  it took an imaginative journey in order to come to this conclusion.

In Sendak’s story, Max acts out his frustrations and anger by conjuring up magical, ferocious beasts who are wild and free, something he desires to be, while in Oz Dorothy runs away hoping to find someone she can trust who will help her save her dog.  While Max creates beasts to represent each of his emotions; anger at his parents for not letting him do what he wants and frustration at being punished by them, Dorothy on the other hand- travels far away to a place where she hopes to find safety and love.  Neither character finds what he is looking for in the distant and strange places they create in their imaginations, rather they find what they desired in the place from which they started out, at home sweet home.

Balancing the merry go round of emotions that flutter around inside each one of us, Sendak’s  Wild Things centers on the emotional changes the child undergoes as a part of his growth and development. Max acts out his temper tantrum through his imaginative journey to the land of the wild things where he can finally be free. Yet after acting out his emotions and getting the freedom he thought he desired, he realizes in the end that he already had what he needed….that perhaps home, where he is loved, is not so bad after all.

More than just a simple tale.

The writer must include three things in his tale if he hopes to hook the reader into the narrative: believability, heart and tension. Believability could mean simply to ensure the actions have realistic motivations, heart allows for the reader to become emotionally drawn to the characters and to their journey, and tension holds the reader on the edge of his seat wondering what will happen next- will the protagonist reach her goal, get the boy, rescue her loved one, save the world?

This premise applies to all stories, ranging from children’s picture books to young adult stories and on through to adult fiction.  Yet, there is another important element writers should include, something of particular importance and appeal to me as a reader (after all -we writers are also readers..):  and that is the story’s message, lesson or moral.

Because I am continuing my Children’s Story theme for 2017, I will present this idea through one of Aesop’s famous fables, although the objective to include a message in addition to believability ,emotion and conflict should be present in all works of fiction.  A fable is a fictitious story- often with animals as the characters, that conveys a lesson of some sort by the end. 

For instance, in Aesop’s The Tortoise and the Hare,  the moral with which we grew up taking away from this tale has been;  “Slow and Steady wins the race”.  Although there are many versions of this fable- the typical rendering portrays the tortoise as a smart and determined character who ultimately wins the race by remaining persistent, never giving up.  On the other hand, the hare is over- confident, and even bordering cocky, positive he will win because he has more talent and skill than his adversary. 

Seemingly, in the version written by children’s author Janet Stevens, Tortoise is described as friendly and quiet, and slow, whereas Hare is flashy, rude and quick.  Hare is so positive he will win that he stops several times along the way over the span of the 6 mile course to get a drink, visit with a friend and nap.  Incredibly, despite witnessing Tortoise pass him at each of the stops, Hare continues to believe Tortoise has no chance of beating him.  However, as we all know, by the end of the story Tortoise wins the race because he worked harder than Hare and never gave up.  On the other hand, Hare’s arrogant belief that an “inferior” individual, such as Tortoise could never beat him causes him to lose a race he could have and should have won.

While most critics claim the moral of the tale points toward the Tortoise; Hard work and perseverance always brings rewards, some could profess the story is actually about Hare and his mistake rather than about Tortoise and what he did right. In a blog I read recently about the “true moral of The Tortoise and the Hare”, Jacob Davenport claims it is Hare upon whom readers should focus, as that character proves overconfidence that leads to a lackadaisical attitude will often be punished by embarrassing failure, evident by the Hare’s loss.  And therefore, Davenport claims the message in this story is that  success depends on using your talents, not just on having them. 

However, regardless of which character or action upon which the moral is based, in the end both viewpoints are essentially the same- only two different perceptions that teach the same lesson: continued hard work will reap rewards while failing to work hard or use one’s capability, talent, intelligence, or inner strength waiting to be realized, will likely result in failure.     I can’t tell you how often I have heard a teacher encourage one of my sons not to waste his potential. It is not only recognizing one’s ability and strength that contributes to success but to apply it and never to take it for granted that ultimately becomes essential.

The important point here is that in addition to those three essential components a writer needs- it is including a lesson, message or moral- or something that helps to relate the reader to the character and his goal- seeking journey that must also be present in order to grab, hold and preserve the reader’s attention.

How wonderful is it that this classic tale has succeeded in both entertaining children while teaching a valuable life lesson through the behaviors and attitudes of a determined and friendly turtle and a sly, overconfident hare. To this day we hear individuals often refer to the Tortoise and the Hare when issuing a warning or introducing an idea or important point. While there are certainly other ways to drive a point home or to pass along an insightful message,  there is nothing quite as brilliant and magical as an imaginative story to brand its mark upon an individual as vividly and effectively as a creatively developed tale.  To a young reader it is believable (a motivational action and goal) that a tortoise in red sneakers and a hare in bright blue running shorts might race side by side along a 6 mile course- each desperate to attain victory.

Just as Aesop showed us in The Tortoise and the Hare, the writer must include believability, emotion and conflict in order to draw in his audience and hold them there. This compels the audience to keep turning pages- in order to find out what happens next to the characters for whom the reader cares, fears, or comes to love. In addition, it will be the story’s message or lesson and its impact upon not only the characters, but on the readers themselves, that will transform what began in the writer’s mind as only an idea into a narrative universally and personally relatable and meaningful -and ultimately for the reader -far more than just a simple tale.

The Beauty of Perseverance

Perseverance is defined as the continued effort to do or achieve something despite difficulties, failure, or opposition.  This is one of several themes in children’s author, Eric Carle’s wonderful story “ The Tiny Seed”,  as a tiny seed perseveres through the perils of weather, geography, hungry predators looking for food, a “big fat weed that takes all the sunlight and the rain away”, and the threat of human beings- to eventually become a beautiful giant flower, strong and proud. 

Against all odds this tiny seed survives through the seasons against obstacles many of the larger and faster seeds could not.  In this story the reader not only learns a bit about nature’s life cycle and its natural beauty, but the beauty of hope, patience, the refusal to quit and survival.

Published in 1970, Carle’s story teaches children to remain steadfast toward reaching their goals and making their dreams come true despite the many inevitable obstacles upon which they will stumble along the way.  This tiny seed shows us all that it is possible to succeed if only we hang in there long enough to overcome each roadblock we encounter, despite their size or impossibleness.

We can apply this idea “to persevere” to nearly every area of our life, whether to the child who tries out for the baseball team at his school, or the young adult applying to college, or the young couple trying to get pregnant, or the hard worker attempting to save enough for his first home- each of whom must stick it out if he or she truly wants to succeed.

The Tiny Seed first sets out for its journey in the Autumn, sailing on through the seasons of Winter, Spring and Summer until it ultimately ends up back in the Autumn season where the cycle begins all over again.  Seemingly, in addition to perseverance, the story looks at the development of a plant and the roadblocks that challenge its growth along the way, mirroring the natural cycle of life to which we as human beings are born, live and ultimately leave- as pieces of ourselves sail on to repeat the cycle all over again.  This illustration provides hope and a sense of appreciation for the life we were gifted while we have the time on this earth to appreciate it.

Therefore, despite the many inevitable roadblocks we as former tiny seeds encounter along our journey of life, through Eric Carle’s delightful and almost profound story about the beauty of perseverance and nature’s life cycle, we know in the end we will succeed as long as we never stop trying. 

There will be challenges to overcome, but through hope, faith and perseverance, pieces of us all will sail on. Whether those tiny pieces are the seeds of our children, our achievements, our successes, our lessons, our victories, our hopes, our dreams or anything else we leave behind, they will ultimately plant themselves somewhere and grow.

It is the simple, meaningful and magical manner in which Eric Carle develops this story that allows the young reader to understand his beautiful message that was so carefully wound around these profound themes.    

“Once more the wind shakes the flower, and this time the flower’s seed pod opens. Out come many tiny seeds that quickly sail far away on the wind.”

And through hope, perseverance and the beauty of nature and life’s cycle, the tiny seeds will never truly die.

The Most Beautiful of All

Some of the most difficult times in our lives are the times we are transitioning from one version of ourself to another.  During these times we struggle to overcome obstacles and depending on the path chosen, our self discovery shall be either successful or tragic.

In writing fiction, the author must understand the importance of the narrative and character arcs which parallel the narrative arcs of our own life stories, as well as the importance of character goals and development.

In Hans Christian Anderson’s “The Ugly Duckling” the protagonist- the ugly duckling, rustles his feathers, toward the story’s conclusion, curving his now slender neck, as he cried out joyfully from the depth of his heart “ I never dreamed of such happiness as this, while I was an ugly duckling.”  This demonstration of a character’s successful self discovery warms the reader’s heart while instilling universal hope for other ugly beings looking for acceptance.

Some critics might say this idea to correlate happiness with physical beauty could be destructive to one’s self esteem, yet it is important to recognize that not only does beauty come in different forms, but it often lurks within us- ready to be discovered if we are determined and wise enough to search for it.

Peel the layers further and we find the author’s lesson here is to accept ourselves despite how others treat us or how we perceive ourself in their eyes.  The reflection we see should not be the one placed there by someone else.

In The Ugly Duckling and other tales that share a similar theme, the main character remains determined, in one way or another, to find out where he belongs and by the time the reader reaches the downward slope of his character arc, he understands the author’s lesson- “to never give up”.

Sure- accepting individual differences can be challenging for some, evident in the news lately,  which is the reason writers create stories centered around this idea, but in the end it is what lays in our own hearts that distinguish us from feeling and looking either ugly or beautiful.

In the novel; YOUR FIRST NOVEL, published author Laura Whitcomb and top agent Ann Rittenberg provide the following advice:  “Your protagonist or hero should be a character your readers will connect with, someone they can cheer for, worry about, and love”. 

Likewise, readers fall in love with Hans Christian Anderson’s ugly duckling as he searches for acceptance -simply because the ugly duckling could be any one of us.  His own struggle to accept himself is so often the same challenge with which individuals struggle so often.

Rittenberg and Whitcomb add “ The protagonist needs to open your reader’s heart while the antagonist needs to frighten or infuriate him”.   

The personal transformation and distorted self image of the ugly duckling opens our heart to him and the hope that he finds someone who will finally accept him while the antagonists are not only those he encounters who reject him, but his own self rejection and his inability to recognize his own self worth.

“At last the large egg broke, and  a young one crept forth crying “ peep, peep”.  The duckling was very large and ugly.”  Although readers feel despair at the image this description delivers, it is the duckling’s own determination that, in the end, helps to reveal the beauty that had been present all along.

Accepting ourself is the first step toward accepting others.  Once we acknowledge that our true self is worthy, those around us shall recognize that worth also.  Anderson’s ugly duckling teaches all of us to search for our own goodness, and “to never give up” until the beauty inside fully emerges, making itself known to everyone.

After all, the most beautiful of all is the individual who never gives up until the self image upon which he regards reflects the beauty inside radiating outward.

Civility versus Savagery; a form of Good versus Evil and an occurring theme in story-telling.

     Frequently, authors write fictional stories to depict various themes based on good versus evil in which a villain of some sort attempts to outwit or destroy a hero or protagonist, whether his victim is one person or the entire world.  Often interpreting history and human behavior through real life characters who want nothing more than to gain power over mankind, ultimately destroying it or themselves in the process, writers bring life to the dark side within us.  Although evil comes in many forms we are often surprised to discover the place from which it really flows and the extent to which it might spread.

     In William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, for instance, readers observe how a group of young boys from six to twelve years old discover that place as they attempt to understand and acknowledge its existence and usefulness.  Recognizing that evil isn’t simply an element or consequence of human nature, but a dynamic constituent that seeks declaration in human behaviors, the author illustrates the ease to which evil might prevail.

     Good versus evil remains at the core of many- if not most tales in which characters fight amongst  and within themselves to suppress the innate seed of evil planted inside each of us.  Each made up story comprises mankind’s struggle to decide his own fate;  whether the character decides to foster his dark urges or conquer them.

     In Golding’s novel, we see a group of young boys who are stranded on a remote island discover within themselves the urge to inflict pain and the accompanying rush of power that comes with that. The characters learn that savagery has the potential to rise up in each one of them and that ultimately it is up to each individual as to whether he nurtures or resists that subconscious desire. Evil and savagery lie within the realm of emotion for all human beings, yet so does the ability to choose compassion, humility or civility instead. Golding’s message attempts to ensure that we never lose sight of that.   Although it is the mission of the writer to entertain his readers, often it is his hope to drive home his novel’s theme that pulses steadily within the backdrop of the story like blood pumping through arteries and veins- that empowers him.

     The reader learns that the behavior of Golding’s characters parallels the savage actions of the adults in the outside world- consumed with destroying the enemy;  in this case non-aryan civilians despised by Hitler and Germany’s fellow axis powers during WWII, as well as the allies’ who fight against them.  As world dictators act savagely toward the human beings they detest or oppose, Jack and his followers turn violent toward Ralph and the other boys marooned on the island with them after their plane crashed. 

     Additionally, Golding addresses the effects of fear on the individual as well as on the collective group as he  uses the boys’ fear of an imaginary beast to illustrate their presumption that evil emerges only from external forces. This ferocious beast first takes form within their imaginations as a snake-like animal that disguises itself as jungle vines- while later, the boys come to believe it could be a sea creature or an abstract ghost-like animal. To support this idea further, the author has the boys discover a dead paratrooper who landed on the mountain,  and mistakenly assume this is their proof that this wild beast does exist. 

     In fact, the boys are not wrong that an evil beast does indeed inhabit the island; it is just that the beast is not in the form the boys think.

     I believe Golding wanted to illustrate in this novel the wretched side of human nature and how each individual has this dark side within him. The boys in his story conceive that the source of  their dark impulses is a beast, some sort of physical creature roaming free about the island. Yet all along there is in actuality no external beast, but an internal monster who has the potential to roam free whenever or if ever it is let out.

     Within civilized society the beast will often express itself in different manifestations: such as through war, crime, selfishness, greed, sin, or just plain cruelty.  Or it may even be disguised within the choreography of politics and other less violent tactics and power struggles. In Lord of the Flies Golding demonstrates that evil is present in everyone and everywhere and further, that mankind’s task does not lie in the impossible charge to eliminate it but in the perpetual struggle to prevent it from becoming the controlling force in our lives.

     A writer will deliver his theme through different methods as well as within various genres.  For instance,  he  might express a theme through the feelings and actions of his protagonist, hero, or villain about the subject about which he has chosen to write or he may depict it through the thoughts and conversations of other characters.  Further, the experiences of the protagonist or main character- in the course of a story might convey to us an idea about the story’s theme or perhaps the actions and events that take place in the narrative might be significant in determining the author’s meaning or message.  Regardless of the manner in which the author decides to develop the theme, it is the extent to which the reader is affected that makes the difference.

     A theme is a flowing component of a tale that fastens together other essential elements of a narrative and a sort of truth that showcases universality, holding true for readers- or individuals- of all ages, genders and cultures. Further, the theme provides the reader with a better understanding of the protagonist’s goals, struggles, conflicts, experiences, discoveries and emotions. Through the story’s theme, the writer attempts to furnish his reader with an insight into how the world works or how he might view and deal with society and mankind in general, as well as with his own thoughts, beliefs and  behaviors.

     As I assist my high school son sort through the analysis and major themes of his summer reading book, Lord of the Flies, I think of Golding’s theme of savagery versus civilization and I wonder if Golding is right- that there truly is an innate evil lying dormant within each one of us, ready to flare up at the first chance we allow.  Or conversely, is it that human beings  are innately good, only vulnerable to evil depending on the environment into which they are thrown and the extent to which they allow themselves to become influenced or tempted to make the wrong choice.

     Within occurring themes of good versus evil (civility versus savagery) , as Golding employed in his classic tale of at first seemingly innocent children acting upon their own natural animal instincts reinforced by the behaviors of parents or society in general, the reader might recognize and understand his individual vulnerabilities, becoming careful to keep his own dark urges in check as he discovers the true place from which evil flows: not out there somewhere in the world hiding in some unknown external location, but lurking deep inside each one of us…. waiting.